wonderful geysers yet discovered in any country.  the basin in which they were situated was over two miles long, and about a mile wide.  It was nearly destitute of vegetation, but there were a few clumps of trees scattered through it, and in one place we found grass enough for our horses.  The basin was chiefly on the west side of the river, but there was a narrow strip, with an average width of three hundred yards, on the east side, which was literally alive with geysers and steam-jets.  We remained two days in this wonderful basin.  The most prominent geysers which we saw in operation we named as follows: "Old Faithful," which was farthest up the river on the western bank; "the Castle: which was a third of a mile below "Old Faithful;" "The Giant," which was a half-mile below "The Castle;" "The Grotto," a short distance below "The Giant;" then crossing the river, lowest down was the "Fantail," and much higher up, nearly opposite "Old Faithful," were "The Giantess" and "Beehive."
    All around the geysers the ground was covered with incrustations and subsilica; and immediately about the vent of most of them the incrustations rose several feet above the surrounding level, assuming grotesque and fanciful shapes.
    "Old Faithful" was the first geyser we saw throwing up a column of water.  It was named on account of its almost constant action.  It did not intermit for more than an hour at any time during our stay.  It had a vent five feet by three, and projected a solid column of water to a height of eighty or ninety feet.  All around it were found pebbles and small stones, which, when broken open, proved to be simply pieces of wood, thoroughly incrusted, and perfectly hard and smooth on the outside, having the appearance of an ordinary stone.
    About the crater of "The Castle" was the largest cone, or mass of incrustations, in the basin.  For a hundred yards around, the ground, flooded with subsilica, of glittering whiteness, sloped gradually up to the cone, which itself rose thirty feet, nearly perpendicular.  It was quite rugged and efflorescent, and on its outer sides had a number of benches, sufficiently wide for a man to stand upon.  These enabled us to climb up and look into its crater, which was irregular in shape, and about seven feet, the longest way, by five feet, the shortest.  The outside of the mound was nearly round, and not less than thirty feet through at its base.  We called it "The Castle," on account of its size and commanding appearance.  It was in action a short time on the morning after our arrival, but only threw water about thirty feet high.  The water did not retain the shape of a column, like that thrown out by "Old Faithful," but rather splashed up and slopped over.  This geyser did not appear to be doing its best, but only spouted a little in a patronizing way, thinking to surprise us novices sufficiently without any undue exertion on its part.
    The mound around "The Giant" was about twelve feet high, and had a piece knocked out of one side of it, so that we could look into the crater, which was shaped like a hollow cylinder, and six feet in diameter.  "The Giant" discharged a column of water, of the same size as its crater, to a height of a hundred feet.  It played as if through an immense hose.  We thought it deserved to be called "The Giant," as it threw out more water than any other geyser which we saw in operation.  Its cone was also large, and the water was very hot; as in fact, was the case with the water of all the geysers.  The day of our arrival, it was in nearly constant action for about three hours, after which we did not see it again discharge.
    "The Grotto" has two craters, connected on the surface by the incrustations which surround them.  We did not ascertain whether there was any Go to next page

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