a silvery white deposit which illuminates, by reflection, the interior an immense depth; both crates have perpendicular but irregular walls, and the distance to which objects are visible down in their deep abysses is truly wonderful. No figure of imagination, no description of enchantment, can equal in imagery the vista of these great basins. West of these is a group, of clear, hot water, which surpass them all for singularity, though not in beauty; these are basins of different sizes and unknown depths, in which float what appear to be raw bullock-hides as they look in a tanner's vat, waving sluggishly about with every undulation of the water; the resemblance is complete. On examination the leathery substance proves to be a fragile texture, something like the vegetable scum in stagnant pools, ("and yet it is not vegetable.") with brilliant colors of red, yellow, green, and black, on the shaded side. It is easily torn and could not be preserved, unless indeed by pressure, like rose leaves; it has the thickness and flabbiness of rawhide, and is quite heavy when wet. Digging down into the basins, I found that this singular substance filled the whole depth, layer upon layer being deposited; and stranger than all, the lower strata were solidified, turning to pure, finely-grained sheets of alabaster, specimens of which I brought in.

On the margin of the lake is a double row of calcareous springs at the boiling point, (here 185,) which do not flow, except at intervals. These build up craters of solid limestone, from 5 to 20 feet in height; many of these stand in the waters of the lake, and several are partially broken away by the erosive action of its waves. There are two flowing ones, with low craters from 20 to 30 feet in diameter, which run as much as 50 inches of boiling water each. Of these, the walls of the craters are visible to a great depth, inclining at a sharp angle under the bed of the lake, and separated from it by thin barriers of shelving rock. All along the shore, for a mile, runs a terrace of calcareous stalagmite, in a deposit of from 20 to 50 feet in depth, the edges of which are worn to a bluff bank by the action of the waters. This stratum has been deposited by the mingled streams of mineral waters of every sort, which flow from the springs above and flood its whole surface. The rock is stained with variegated colors, which speedily fade, but specimens obtained from the lower beds, and bleached in the lake, are the purest of alabaster. Scattered over the surface of this terrace are masses of calcareous tufa, which, when dried, will float in water. Not less than 1,000 inches of hot water flow into the lake at this point, and numberless jets can be seen boiling up far out in its basin. In this enumeration I have described but a few of the largest springs; there are hundreds of them, including vapor vents, mud spouts, and still caldrons.  They are scattered through the woods in such numbers as to require the utmost care to prevent stumbling into them at every turn.

Occasionally this anomaly is seen, of two springs, at different levels, both boiling violently; one pours a large and constant stream into the other, yet the former does not diminish, nor does the latter fill up and overflow. Most of the springs, however, seem to be independent of each other and to come form immense depths, having different levels at the surface, different temperatures, and pulsations; seldom are found the waters and deposits of any two exactly alike. It is impossible to adequately describe, and utterly impossible to realize from any description, more than a faint idea of the beauties and wonders of this group. The fire kindled on the summit of the mountain has by this time spread to a vast conflagration, before the devouring flames of which tall pine trees shrivel up and are consumed like grass. The whole summit of the mountain sends up a vast column of smoke which reaches to the sky, a Go to next page

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