from its base. It is 12 feet in height, with a solid base; its sides have a curvelinear slope, tagged edges, and its cavity or nozzle is 7 feet in diameter. During its quiescent state the boiling water can be seen in its chambers at a depth of 40 feet, the action of the steam and water together producing a loud rumbling sound. Near and acting in concert with it are half a dozen smaller craters from 2 to 8 feet in height constantly full of water, and boiling violently from 2 to 6 feet into the air. This great geyser played several times while we were in the valley, on one occasion throwing constantly for over three hours a stream of water 7 feet in diameter from 90 to 200 feet perpendicularly. While playing it doubled the size of the Firehole River, running at its maximum about 2,500 inches of water. Two hundred yards below this is a grotto formation, similar in structure to the turreted spring; this is 20 feet in altitude, 40 feet in outside diameter, and has side apertures large enough for a man to crawl into; these lead to cavernous craters on the interior. A large and singular pillar of stone stands in the middle of the vent. Several of the party crawled through the interior when it was quiet, but an hour afterward it was throwing a column of water 6 feet in diameter to the height of 60 feet. Near it were several large vents in which water boiled to the height of 6 feet constantly, and large streams of water ran from these down the banks into the river. Still farther below, and on the opposite bank of the stream, are two small craters, with apertures two feet each in diameter; these two are connected, one throwing steam, and the other water, and also alternating with another small crater below. First the stream would rush from the upper crater, roaring violently, then this would suddenly cease, to be followed by a fan-like jet of water rising from the lower crater to the height of over 40 feet, often playing for perhaps two minutes; then this would suddenly stop flowing, and the steam would rush forth again for a time. Occasionally the small crater threw a transverse stream, sometimes alternating with either of the others; and thus they played on for hours, after which all would subside to a gentle bubbling. All along both banks of the river are small craters and spouts built up in every conceivable shape; all were active except the geysers, and each entirely independent of the others. Several streams of water poured out in cascades from round holes in the rocky bank of the river, and a number of little geysers played from 6 to 40 feet at intervals.

Opposite camp, on the other side of the river, is a high ledge of stalagmite, sloping from the base of the mountain down to the river; numerous small knolls are scattered over its surface. The craters of boiling springs from 15 to 25 feet in diameter; some of these throw water the height of 3 and 4 feet. In the summit of this bank of rock is the grand geyser of the world, a well in the strata 20 by 25 feet in diametric measurements, the perceptible elevation of the rim being but a few inches, and when quiet having a visible depth of 100 feet. The edge of the basin is bounded by a heavy fringe of rock, and stalagmite in solid layers is deposited by the overflowing waters. When an eruption is about to occur the basin suddenly fills with boiling water to within a few feet of the surface, then suddenly, with heavy concussions, immense clouds of steam rise to the height of 500 feet. The whole great body of water, 20 by 25 feet, ascends in one gigantic column to the height of 90 feet, and from its apex 5 great jets shoot up, radiating slightly from each other, to the unparalleled altitude of 250 feet from the ground. The earth trembles under the descending deluge from this vast fountain, a thousand hissing sounds are heard in the air; rainbows encircle the summits of the jets with a halo of celestial glory. The fall- Go to next page

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